Summary first lectures Part 2 What is CANCER

Hi I am DR KEVIN Ryan MD MBA FACP ,hematologist oncologist, , PROFESSOR ,RETIRED COLONEL AND CANCER SURVIVOR and this is when tumor is the rumor and cancer is the answer. Modeled after my book of the same name available on the web site OF THE SAME NAME.  Www.whentumoristherumorandcanceristheanswer.com You can find it on the web site and a lot more, interviews, films excerpts on the site and it is also available on Amazon all formats are available.        The whole endeavor is non profit and the goal is to reach as many of the 15 million folks affected by cancer every year and help, calm their anxieties with knowledge Thus my show on www.w4cs.com the cancer support radio program live every Tuesday at 3 pm EST noon PST I’d like to remind you REMIND YOU THE PROGRAM IS ARCHIVED HERE AND THE iheart RADIO station  AS WELL AS THE WWW.W4CS BLOG AND MYBLOG ACCESSED EASILY FROM THE WEB SITE We have been doing a summary of the first 9 talks about cancer  and this is part 2 This is what about our enemy  CANCER

 

Part 2 Cancer

WE MUST KNOW THAT WHICH WE ARE  AFRAID OF. WE MUST KNOW THE PERSONALITY OF THE BEAST TO BE BETTER ABLE TO FIGHT IT , WE MUST KNOW THE ENEMY AND THAT IS WHAT WE ARE GOING TO TALK ABOUT

 

SO LETS SINK OUR TEETH INTO THE BEAST..THE ENEMY ..WHAT IS CANCER

 

 

Some CANCER BASICS

 

PONDER THIS

HOW DO LIVER CELLS KNOW WHEN IT IS TIME TO STOP GROWING BECAUSE THEY HAVE REACHED LIVER NESS  OR KIDNEY CELLS  WHEN REACHING KIDNEYESS OR YOUR BRAIN OR SKIN OR ANY ORGAN OR SYSTEM OF YOUR BODY

In cancer the cells do not stop , they escape or impair immune detection or fool it , They simply do not stop growing and having children. They just do not  stop growing .

They have ways of turning off natural timing of A cells death or making vascular highways for themselves to feed themselves as well as have highways to travel on and spread either by direct extension or through the blood. They are clever and they are persistent

What Is Cancer?

Cancer can start any place in the body. It starts when cells grow out of control and crowd out normal cells. This makes it hard for the body to work the way it should.

Cancer can be treated very well for many people. In fact, more people than ever before lead full lives after cancer treatment. 65% The numbers used to be opposite

Here we will explain what cancer is and how it’s treated IN VERY general terms. You’ll find a list of words about cancer and what they mean at the end of this.

Cancer basics

Causes

 

How cancer begins

Cells are the basic units that make up the human body. Cells grow and divide to make new cells as the body needs them. Usually, when cells get too old or damaged, they die. Then new cells take their place. AT A NORMAL HEALTHY PACE

Cancer begins when genetic changes in the cancer cell impair this orderly process. Cells start to grow uncontrollably. These cells may form a mass called a tumor. A tumor can be cancerous or benign. A cancerous tumor is malignant, meaning it can grow and spread to other parts of the body. A benign tumor means the tumor can grow but will not spread.

Some types of cancer do not form a tumor. These include leukemias, most types of lymphoma, and myeloma..These are so called liquid tumors

Cancer is caused by changes (mutations) to the DNA within cancer cells. The DNA inside a cell is packaged into a large number of individual genes, each of which contains a set of instructions telling the cell what functions to perform, as well as how to grow and divide. It tells it what proteins to make that might block the immune systems. Errors in the instructions, especially an accumulation of them or from multiple sites in the cells DNA can cause the cell to stop its normal function and may allow a cell to become cancerous.

What do gene mutations do?

A gene mutation can instruct a healthy cell to:

  • Allow rapid growth.
  • Fail to stop uncontrolled cell growth.
  • Gene mutations can cause normal cells to Make mistakes when repairing DNA errors as we have a ormal mechanism for self repair. Those mutations are the most common ones found in cancer. But many other gene mutations can contribute to causing cancer.

What causes gene mutations?

Gene mutations can occur for several reasons, for instance:

  • Gene mutations you’re born with.. This type of mutation accounts for a small percentage of cancers. Perhaps 5-8%
  • Gene mutations that occur after birth. Most gene mutations occur after you’re born and aren’t inherited. A number of forces can cause gene mutations, such as smoking, radiation, viruses, cancer-causing chemicals (carcinogens), obesity, hormones, chronic inflammation and a lack of exercise. But again usually it is an accumulation overwhelming or blinding immune detection or eradication

Gene mutations occur frequently during normal cell growth. However, cells and especially those in our immune system when it works correctly contain a mechanism that recognizes when a mistake occurs and repairs the mistake. Occasionally, a mistake is missed. Occurring enough times unchecked could cause a cell to become cancerous.

How do gene mutations interact with each other?

The gene mutations you’re born with and those that you acquire throughout your life work together to cause cancer.

For instance, if you’ve inherited a genetic mutation that predisposes you to cancer, that doesn’t mean you’re certain to get cancer. Instead, you may need one or more other gene mutations to cause cancer. Your inherited gene mutation could make you more likely than other people to develop cancer when exposed to a certain cancer-causing substance.

It’s not clear just how many mutations must accumulate for cancer to form. It’s likely that this varies among cancer types

 

While doctors have an idea of what may increase your risk of cancer, MANY of cancers occur in people who don’t have any known risk factors. Factors known to increase your risk of cancer include:

Your age

A big factor. Cancer can take decades to develop. That’s why most people diagnosed with cancer are 65 or older. While it’s more common in older adults, cancer isn’t exclusively an adult disease — cancer can be diagnosed at any age.

 

Your habits

Certain lifestyle choices are known to increase your risk of cancer. Smoking, drinking more than one alcoholic drink a day (for women of all ages and men older than age 65) or two drinks a day (for men age 65 and younger), excessive exposure to the sun or frequent blistering sunburns, being obese, and having unsafe sex can contribute to cancer. Failure to exercise

You can change these habits to lower your risk of cancer — though some habits are easier to change than others.

 

Your family history

Only a small portion of cancers are due to an inherited condition. If cancer is common in your family, it’s possible that mutations are being passed from one generation to the next. You might be a candidate for genetic testing to see whether you have inherited mutations that might increase your risk of certain cancers. Keep in mind that having an inherited genetic mutation doesn’t necessarily mean you’ll get cancer.

 

Your health conditions

Some chronic health conditions, such as ulcerative colitis, can markedly increase your risk of developing certain cancers. Talk to your doctor about your risk. Chronic inflammatory states can do this

 

Your environment

The environment around you may contain harmful chemicals that can increase your risk of cancer. Even if you don’t smoke, you might inhale secondhand smoke if you go where people are smoking or if you live with someone who smokes. Chemicals in your home or workplace, such as asbestos and benzene, also are associated with an increased risk of cancer

 

1. The Sun

The damage caused by ultraviolet (UV) rays from the sun have been studied immensely over the years. Tanning beds are bad and so is sun exposure

Genes

As we stated People can be at a higher risk of developing cancer from their genetic makeup, or DNA. More specifically, certain mutated genes can be passed onto children from generation to generation, something you can’t prevent or control the effect of. The American Cancer Society explains that cancer is believed to be formed from more than one gene mutation, so you aren’t likely to develop cancer just from one mutated gene inherited through DNA. However, people who inherit these faulty genes are then at a disadvantage because they’re automatically starting off with one mutated gene.

 

Breast cancer is a prime example of this—there are two genes that can be inherited, which can greatly increase the risk of breast cancer within families or lineages. There’s testing that can be done to find out if you have one of these risky genes, and it’s believed that around 5- to 10-percent of breast cancer cases are caused by them. Although many women and some men are diagnosed with breast cancer each year, it’s something that is often caught early enough to treat and overcome.

 

. Smoking

No list of factors that cause cancer would be complete without smoking. Cigarettes kill a staggering amount of people each year because of various types of cancer, many of which develop in the lung, esophagus, mouth, throat, and stomach. More and more cities are banning the use of cigarettes inside public establishments, on patios, and in vehicles as research has shown that second hand smoke is harmful and even deadly for those who don’t smoke. It seriously increases the risk of developing several types of cancer, as well as harmful diseases in other organs.

Smoking trends since 1965, and the amount of adult smokers has decreased by over 20-percent in that time frame. If you need help quitting smoking, take advantage of the many helpful online tools available, join a support group, and talk to your doctor about kicking the habit for good.

Eating Habits and (Lack of) Physical Activity

There are many things that increase the risk of or cause cancer that can’t be prevented. But there are some lifestyle choices that contribute to the risk of developing it, and poor eating habits and little physical activity are two of them.

How we treat our bodies is a major factor in being healthy—. Exercising and getting regular physical activity play a role in this too. Lack of it has been connected to cancer, so taking care of your body in every way is important.

 

AGE Age

It’s a common fact that as you grow older, your chance of developing cancer increases. Cells don’t mutate into cancerous cells overnight, so slow changes can happen over a healthy person’s lifetime without them knowing. Sometimes it happens naturally,IS DETECTED AND DEALT with BECAUSE OF EARLY SCREENING OR A HEALTHY IMMUNE SYSTEM while in some cases the cell mutates from the person being exposed to carcinogens, like cigarettes or environmental hazards.

No one can prevent cancer completely but there are steps that can be taken to help lower the risk of developing cancer. You can’t stop the aging process, but eating healthy, exercising, limiting exposure to carcinogens, and seeing your doctor for regular physicals, GETTING SCREENS are all important for your future—what you do now and how you treat your body as you grow older can have a long-term impact, and being as healthy as possible is the best way to avoid certain preventable diseases, including contributing to your risk of certain cancers.

 

Asbestos

Asbestos exposure, and mesothelioma as a result of this exposure, might be rare these days, In addition to lung cancer and mesothelioma, asbestos has shown to increase the risk of cancer in the larynx and ovaries. People working in construction are most at risk because of the materials used and potential for mishandling and other ways of exposure

Excessive Alcohol Consumption

The impact of alcohol consumption on our health has been widely studied. Many experts believe a drink a day, or specifically a glass of wine a day, could be good for your health. Others believe there are too many potential harmful effects and that alcohol should be completely avoided. Regardless of these two sides, it’s agreed that excessive alcohol consumption can lead to numerous serious medical conditions, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and mental health problems..

 

Some of the most common cancers linked to drinking too much over a long period of time are liver, colon, throat and breast cancer, so most experts agree that moderation is key.

 

Sex HPV

Conditions Affecting the Immune System

The immune system is your body’s way to defend and prevent infections and diseases. Weakened immune systems or those that don’t function properly are at risk of allowing harmful cells to hurt the body. An unfortunate cause of cancer stems from immune systems that are already affected by another medical condition or syndrome..

 

Since viruses weaken the immune system, there are certain types of viruses that could cause cancer or put the person at a higher risk of developing it in their lifetime. According to the American Cancer Society, some of these viruses include hepatitis B and C, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human pappiloma viruses (hpvs), and human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8). Several other viruses have been linked to causing cancer but there isn’t enough evidence yet to prove the connection

 

AGENT ORANGE OTHER TOXINS

Types of cancer

Doctors divide cancer into types based on where it began. Four main types of cancer are:

 

There are many other types of cancer. These above are the main groups

 

How cancer spreads

As a cancerous tumor grows, the bloodstream or lymphatic system may carry cancer cells to other parts of the body. During this process, known as metastasis, the cancer cells grow and may develop into new tumors.

One of the first places a cancer often spreads is to regional lymph nodes draining the area. Lymph nodes are tiny, bean-shaped organs that help fight infection. They are located in clusters in different parts of the body, such as the neck, groin area, and under the arms.

Cancer may also spread through the bloodstream to distant parts of the body. These parts may include the bones, liver, lungs, or brain. Even if the cancer spreads, it is still named for the area where it began. For example, if breast cancer spreads to the lungs, it is called metastatic breast cancer, not lung cancer. A very very common mistake and not just grammar

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Diagnosing cancer

Sometimes a doctor diagnoses cancer after a cancer screening test in an otherwise healthy person. Examples of screening tests include colonoscopy, mammography, and a Pap test and soon genetic blood tests. A person may need additional tests to confirm or disprove the result of the screening test.

 

For most cancers, a biopsy is the only way to make a definite diagnosis. A biopsy is the removal of a small amount of tissue for further study. The following expression is crude but memorable tissue is the issue and no meat no treat. You must know the tissue diagnosis not guess

 

Cancer and its treatment can cause several complications, including:

  • Pain. Pain can be caused by cancer or by cancer treatment, though not all cancer is painful. Medications and other approaches can effectively treat cancer-related pain
  • .
  • Fatigue. Fatigue in people with cancer has many causes, but it can often be managed. Fatigue associated with chemotherapy or radiation therapy treatments is common, but it’s usually temporary.
  • Difficulty breathing. Cancer or cancer treatment may cause a feeling of being short of breath. Treatments may bring relief.
  • Nausea. Certain cancers and cancer treatments can cause nausea. Your doctor can sometimes predict if your treatment is likely to cause nausea. Medications and other treatments may help you prevent or decrease nausea. Mj is once again like the 1980’s showing a possible role as is hypnosis, meditation acupuncture and acupressure
  • Diarrhea or constipation. Cancer and cancer treatment can affect your bowels and cause diarrhea or constipation.
  • Weight loss. Cancer and cancer treatment may cause weight loss. Cancer steals food from normal cells and deprives them of nutrients. This is often not affected by how many calories or what kind of food is eaten; it’s difficult to treat. In most cases, using artificial nutrition through tubes into the stomach or vein does not help change the weight loss. But it is tried on rare occasions. Medical therapy is tried and once again the cannabanoids- the munchies – may have a role. Research is really difficult to do as MJ is still stupidly classified as a stage 1 drug up there with opium and heroin but there is more than just hope
  • Chemical changes in your body. Cancer can upset the normal chemical balance in your body and increase your risk of serious complications. Signs and symptoms of chemical imbalances might include excessive thirst, frequent urination, constipation and confusion. Sometimes it can be very severe
  • Brain and nervous system problems. Cancer can press on nearby nerves and cause pain and loss of function of one part of your body. Cancer that involves the brain can cause headaches and stroke-like signs and symptoms, such as weakness on one side of your body. There is also a lot of research into so called chemo brain especially in breast cancer.
  • Unusual immune system reactions to cancer. In some cases the body’s immune system may react to the presence of cancer by attacking healthy cells. Called paraneoplastic syndrome, these very rare reactions can lead to a variety of signs and symptoms, such as difficulty walking and seizures. High and low calcium, increased clotting and many more
  • Cancer that spreads. As cancer advances, it may spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body. Where cancer spreads depends on the type of cancer. And cancers of a particular type typically spread to the same list of sites for that cancer
  • Cancer that returns. Cancer survivors have a risk of cancer recurrence. Some cancers are more likely to recur than others..

Remember Cancer is not just one disease.

. Cancers are alike in some ways, but they are different in the ways they grow and spread.

So as a review : Cancer cells can also spread to other parts of the body. For instance, cancer cells in the lung can travel to the bones and grow there. When cancer cells spread, it’s called metastasis (meh-TAS-tuh-sis). When lung cancer spreads to the bones, it’s still called lung cancer. And folks often confuse this The distinction is not academic as the original cancer behaves like the behavior of the original cancer not like the place is spread to. To doctors, the cancer cells in the bones look just like the ones from the lung. It’s not called bone cancer unless it started in the bones.

 

How are cancers different?

Some cancers grow and spread fast. Others grow more slowly. They also respond to treatment in different ways. Some types of cancer are best treated with surgery; others respond better to drugs called chemotherapy (key-mo-THER-uh-pee). Often 2 or more treatments are used to get the best results.

When someone has cancer, the doctor will want to find out what kind of cancer it is. People with cancer need treatment that works for their type of cancer.

What are tumors?

Most cancers form a lump called a tumor or a growth. But not all lumps are cancer. Doctors take out a piece of the lump and look at it to find out if it’s cancer. Lumps that are not cancer are called benign (be-NINE). Lumps that are cancer are called malignant (muh-LIG-nunt).

There are some cancers, like leukemia (cancer of the blood), that don’t form tumors. They grow in the blood cells or other cells of the body such as the bone marrow and or lymphnodes.

MOVING ON What stage is the cancer? And we will talk more about that later

The doctor also needs to know if and how far the cancer has spread from where it started. This is called the cancer stage. You may have heard other people say that their cancer was stage 1 or stage 2. Knowing the stage of the cancer helps the doctor decide what type of treatment is best.

For each type of cancer there are tests that can be done to figure out the stage of the cancer. As a rule, a lower stage (such as a stage 1 or 2) means that the cancer has not spread very much. A higher number (such as a stage 3 or 4) means it has spread more. Stage 4 is the highest stage.

Ask your doctor to explain the stage of your cancer and what it means for you.

 

How is cancer treated?

The most common treatments for cancer are surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation (ray-dee-A- shun). Although immuno therapy and a number of precision and targeted medicines  and techniques are exciting , on the rise in treatment , early detection, screening finding early relapse  with some in previously hopeless situations. We are on the edge of a brave new world and much later we will cover future treatments

Surgery can be used to take out the cancer ON OCCASION IT OFTEN HAS NO ROLE IN ALTERRING SURVIVAL. The doctor might also take out some or all of the body part the cancer affects. For breast cancer, part (or all) of the breast might be removed. For prostate cancer, the prostate gland might be taken out. Surgery is not used for all types of cancer. For example, blood cancers like leukemia are best treated with drugs.

 

Chemo (short for chemotherapy) is the use of drugs to kill cancer cells or slow their growth. Some chemo can be given by IV (into a vein through a needle), and others are a pill you swallow. Because chemo drugs travel to nearly all parts of the body, they are useful for cancer that has spread. BUT AGAIN IT MAY BE ONLY LOCAL AS WE ARE TRYING TO GET MORE PRECISE TARGETING

 

Radiation is also used to kill or slow the growth of cancer cells. It can be used alone or with surgery or chemo. Radiation treatment is like getting an x-ray. Sometimes it’s given by putting a “seed” inside the cancer to give off the radiation.

 

What treatment is best for me?

Your cancer treatment will depend on what’s best for you. Some cancers respond better to surgery; others respond better to chemo or radiation. Knowing the type of cancer you have is the first step toward knowing which treatments will work best for you.

The stage of your cancer will also help the doctor decide on the best treatment for you. A stage 3 or 4 cancer is likely to respond better to treatments that treat the whole body, like chemo.

Your health and the treatment you prefer will also play a part in deciding about cancer treatment. Not all types of treatment will work for your cancer, so ask what options you have. And treatments do have side effects, so ask about what to expect with each treatment.

Don’t be afraid to ask questions. It’s your right to know what treatments are most likely to help and what their side effects may be.

 

Why did this happen to me?

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Some people think they’re being punished for something they did or didn’t do in the past. Most people wonder if they did something to cause the cancer. In many cases they did but the guilt has no role and stopping the behavior and starting healthy ones even after diagnosis can actually be beneficial but in terms of the cancer, quality of life and psycho emotional status and sense of control and fighting back

If you’re having these feelings, you’re not alone. Thoughts and beliefs like this are common for people with cancer. You need to know that cancer is not a punishment for your past actions..It may be a consequence though. Try to not blame yourself or focus on looking for ways you might have prevented cancer. It does no good other than what I said

 

How to talk to your loved ones about cancer I cover this in the section called But What Do I say and we will repeat them then but here are some tips..

 

It can be hard to talk both ways.

Here are some tips to help you and your loved ones deal with cancer:

  • Tell your family and friends about your cancer as soon as you feel up to it. Sooner or later, they’ll all know you have cancer. They might feel hurt or left out if they haven’t heard about it from you.
  • When you talk to them, explain what kind of cancer you have and how it will be treated. Let them know that no one can catch it from you.
  • Allow friends and family to help you, and tell them what kind of help you need. If you need a ride to the doctor’s office or hospital, let them know. If you need help around the house, let them know that, too. There may be times when you’re not sure what you need. That’s OK. Just let them know you aren’t sure, but you’ll let them know when you are.
  • Tell the people who are closest to you how you feel. This may not be easy, but it can be a very important way to get the support you need when you need it most. If you have trouble talking about your feelings, you might find a support group or a mental health counselor to help you.
  • If you have friends or family who tell you to “cheer up” when you’re not feeling good, it’s OK to ask them to just listen, and not tell you what to do. Sometimes you need to talk about what’s going on without getting advice in return.
  • If some people are not OK with talking about your feelings, don’t be upset. Try talking to others who might listen.
  • You may not be able to do things you were doing before you got cancer. If that’s true, let your family and friends know.
  • It’s best for your family and friends to keep doing the things they did before you had cancer. They should not feel guilty about doing this.
  • If you’re feeling sad or depressed, talk to your doctor, nurse, or religious leader. You can also call the American Cancer Society at 1-800-227-2345.

How can I learn more about my cancer?

If you have questions about cancer or need help finding resources in your area, please call the American Cancer Society at 1-800-227-2345. We’re there when you need us – 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.

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What are the most common forms of cancer?

Cancer may occur anywhere in the body. In women, breast cancer is one of the most common. In men, it’s prostate cancer. Lung cancer and colorectal cancer affect both men and women in high numbers.

There are five main categories of cancer: Carcinomas begin in the skin or tissues that line the internal organs Sarcomas develop in the bone, cartilage, fat, muscle or other connective tissues Leukemia begins in the blood and bone marrow Lymphomas start in the immune system. Central nervous system cancers develop in the brain and spinal cord.

Once again and to repeat as this comes up a lot How is cancer treated?

Treatment options depend on the type of cancer, its stage, if the cancer has spread and your general health. The goal of treatment is to kill as many cancerous cells while reducing damage to normal cells nearby. Advances in technology make this possible.

: The most common treatments for cancer are surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation (ray-dee-A- shun). Although immuno therapy and a number of precision and targeted medicines  and techniques are exciting , on the rise in treatment ,  the following still remain key =early detection, screening, finding early relapse  with some in previously thought hopeless situations. We are on the edge of a brave new world and much later we will cover future treatments

Surgery can be used to take out the cancer. The doctor might also take out some or all of the body part the cancer affects. For breast cancer, part (or all) of the breast might be removed. For prostate cancer, the prostate gland might be taken out. Surgery is not used for all types of cancer. For example, blood cancers like leukemia are best treated with drugs.

 

Chemo) is the use of drugs to kill cancer cells or slow their growth. Some chemo can be given by IV (into a vein through a needle), and others are a pill you swallow. Because chemo drugs travel to nearly all parts of the body, they are useful for cancer that has spread.

 

Radiation is also used to kill or slow the growth of cancer cells. It can be used alone or with surgery or chemo. Radiation treatment is like getting an x-ray. Sometimes it’s given by putting a “seed” inside the cancer to give off the radiation.

 

What treatment is best for me?

Your cancer treatment will depend on what’s best for you. Some cancers respond better to surgery; others respond better to chemo or radiation. Knowing the type of cancer you have is the first step toward knowing which treatments will work best for you.

The stage of your cancer will also help the doctor decide on the best treatment for you. A stage 3 or 4 cancer is likely to respond better to treatments that treat the whole body, like chemo.

Your health and the treatment you prefer will also play a part in deciding about cancer treatment. Not all types of treatment will work for your cancer, so ask what options you have. And treatments do have side effects, so ask about what to expect with each treatment.

Don’t be afraid to ask questions. It’s your right to know what treatments are most likely to help and what their side effects may be.

How can I learn more about my cancer?

If you have questions about cancer or need help finding resources in your area, please call the American Cancer Society at 1-800-227-2345. They are there when you need them – 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.

As we have said Cancer is a genetic disease—that is, it is caused by changes to genes that control the way our cells function, especially how they grow and divide.

Genetic changes that cause cancer can be inherited from our parents. They can also arise during a person’s lifetime as a result of errors that occur as cells divide or because of damage to DNA caused by certain environmental exposures. Cancer-causing environmental exposures include substances, such as the chemicals in tobacco smoke, and radiation, such as ultraviolet rays from the sun. Each person’s cancer has a unique combination of genetic changes. As the cancer continues to grow, additional changes will occur. Even within the same tumor, different cells may have different genetic changes.

In general, cancer cells have more genetic changes, such as mutations in DNA, than normal cells. Some of these changes may have nothing to do with the cancer; they may be the result of the cancer, rather than its cause.

“Drivers” of Cancer

The genetic changes that contribute to cancer tend to affect three main types of genes—proto-oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, and DNA repair genes. These changes are sometimes called “drivers” of cancer.

Proto-oncogenes are involved in normal cell growth and division. However, when these genes are altered in certain ways or are more active than normal, they may become cancer-causing genes (or oncogenes), allowing cells to grow and survive when they should not.

Tumor suppressor genes are also involved in controlling cell growth and division. Cells with certain alterations in tumor suppressor genes may divide in an uncontrolled manner.

DNA repair genes are involved in fixing damaged DNA. Cells with mutations in these genes tend to develop additional mutations in other genes. Together, these mutations may cause the cells to become cancerous.

As scientists have learned more about the molecular changes that lead to cancer, they have found that certain mutations commonly occur in many types of cancer. Because of this, cancers are sometimes characterized by the types of genetic alterations that are believed to be driving them, not just by where they develop in the body and how the cancer cells look under the microscope.

DNA IS LIKE A LADDER WITH TWO IDENTICAL LONG LEGS AND RUNGS THAT ALWAYS MATCH IN A CERTAIN WAY THE LADDER AND RUNGS ARE MADE OF BUILDING BLOCKS CALLED NUCLEOTIDES

The fidelity, THE integrity of the human genome or the DNA is maintained by multiple pathways of DNA repair that respond to DNA damage or errors in replication.1 Mismatch repair (MMR) proteins proofread newly replicated DNA strands for mistakes and fix them but if overwhelmed or stopped then bad disruptions in otherwise normal DNA and all the functions of it can occur

When Cancer Spreads

 

Under a microscope, metastatic cancer cells generally look the same as cells of the original cancer. Moreover, metastatic cancer cells and cells of the original cancer usually have some molecular features in common, such as the presence of specific chromosome changes.

 

 

Tissue Changes that Are Not Cancer

Not every change in the body’s tissues is cancer. Some tissue changes may develop into cancer if they are not treated, however. Here are some examples of tissue changes that are not cancer but, in some cases, are monitored:

Hyperplasia occurs when cells within a tissue divide faster than normal and extra cells build up, or proliferate. However, the cells and the way the tissue is organized look normal under a microscope..

Dysplasia is a more serious condition than hyperplasia. In dysplasia, there is also a buildup of extra cells. But the cells look abnormal and there are changes in how the tissue is organized. In general, the more abnormal the cells and tissue look, the greater the chance that cancer will form.

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An even more serious condition is carcinoma in situ. Although it is sometimes called cancer, carcinoma in situ is not cancer because the abnormal cells do not spread beyond the original tissue

Blood Cancers

Blood cancers such as multiple myeloma affect the function and production of blood cells. In most MYELOMA blood cancers, normal blood cell development is interrupted by uncontrolled growth of abnormal blood cells called plasma cells which make antibodies. The abnormal blood cells can prevent blood from fighting off infection or preventing uncontrolled bleeding. In rare cases myeloma is found in one place in the body, and is called solitary myeloma or a plasmacytoma. Myeloma blood cancer treatment may include chemotherapy, radiation and stem cell transplant. Meaning transplant of the Adam and eve cells in your bone marrow the ones that all blood cells eventually come from There are ways to isolate them HUGE PROGRESS IN MULTIPLE RELAPSES

There are three main blood cancer types:Myeloma as we have said and

Leukemia

 

And lymphoma

Leukemia is a blood cancer in both the bone marrow and in blood itself. Both types of leukemia involve an over-production of white blood cells. Lymphocytic leukemia involves over-production of lymphocytes, and myelogenous leukemia involves over-production of white blood cells that are the parents of what their normal mature counterpart, the granulocytes Over time, leukemia cells crowd out normal blood cells leading to serious bleeding and infection.

Lymphoma

Lymphoma is a blood cancer that develops in the lymphatic system. The lymphatic system is made up of groups of lymph nodes which keep body fluids free from infection. The blood cancer may spread from one group of lymph nodes to another in order (Hodgkin lymphoma) or spread randomly (non-Hodgkin lymphoma).The cells also have different appearances and behavior and responses that actually get quite complicated when dealing with non Hodgkin’s lymphoma

Lymphoma is cancer that begins in lymphocytes (T cells or B cells). These are disease-fighting white blood cells that are part of the immune system.

 

Melanoma

Melanoma is cancer that begins in cells that become melanocytes, which are specialized cells that make melanin (the pigment that gives skin its color). Most melanomas form on the skin, but melanomas can also form in other pigmented tissues, such as the eye.

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Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors

There are different types of brain and spinal cord tumors. These tumors are named based on the type of cell in which they formed and where the tumor first formed in the central nervous system. For example, an astrocytic tumor begins in star-shaped brain cells called astrocytes, which help keep nerve cells healthy. Brain tumors can be benign (not cancer) or malignant (cancer).

Other Types of Tumors

Germ Cell Tumors

Germ cell tumors are a type of tumor that begins in the cells that give rise to sperm or eggs. These tumors can occur almost anywhere in the body and can be either benign or malignant.

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Neuroendocrine Tumors

Carcinoid Tumors

Carcinoid syndrome. Symptoms may include flushing of the face, flat angiomas (small collections of dilated blood vessels) of the skin, diarrhea, bronchial spasms, rapid pulse, and sudden drops in blood pressure

Let’s see if there are any questions

 

This has been DR KEVIN Ryan MD mba FACP and hematologist oncologist here, medical oncologist, PROFESSOR AND RETIRED COLONEL AND CANCER SURVIVOR and this is when tumor is the rumor and cancer is the answer. This is all Modeled after my book of the same name available on the web site OF THE SAME NAME www.whentumoristherumorandcanceristheanswer.com you can find it on the web site and a lot more, interviews, films excerpts on the site and it is also available on Amazon. This is all non profit with goal being to educate as many of the 15 million that cancer touches in some way every day     i AM Signing off radio www.w4cs.com the cancer support radio program REMIND YOU THE PROGRAM IS ARCHIVED HERE AND THE iheart RADIO AS WELL AS THE WWW.W4CS BLOG AND MYBLOG ACCESSED EASILY FROM THE WEB SITE